The Indian auto industry is one of the largest in the world. The industry accounts for 7.1 per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The Two Wheelers segment with 80 per cent market share is the leader of the Indian Automobile market owing to a growing middle class and a young population. Moreover, the growing interest of the companies in exploring the rural markets further aided the growth of the sector. The overall Passenger Vehicle (PV) segment has 14 per cent market share.
India is also a prominent auto exporter and has strong export growth expectations for the near future. In April-March 2017 exports of PV and Commercial Vehicles (CV) registered a growth of 16.20 per cent and 4.99 per cent respectively, over April-March 2016. In addition, several initiatives by the Government of India and the major automobile players in the Indian market are expected to make India a leader in the 2W and Four Wheeler (4W) market in the world by 2020.
- Sixth largest producer in the world with an average annual production of 24 million vehicles in 2016.
- India has the fifth largest passenger vehicle and commercial vehicle market
- Presence of four large auto manufacturing hubs across the country: Delhi-Gurgaon-Faridabad in the north, Mumbai-Pune-Nashik-Aurangabad in the west, Chennai- Bengaluru-Hosur in the south and Jamshedpur-Kolkata in the east.
- Contributes to 7.1 % of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by volume.
- Six million-plus hybrid and electric vehicles to be sold annually, by 2020.
- Two-wheeler production has grown from 8.5 million units annually to 15.9 million units in the last seven years.
- Domestic Market Share : 2015-16
Passenger Vehicles 14%
Commercial Vehicles 3%
- The automotive industry accounts for 45% of the country’s manufacturing gross domestic product (GDP), 7.1 % of the country’s GDP and employs about 19 million people both directly and indirectly.
- India is currently the sixth largest producer in the world with an average annual production of 24 million vehicles, of which 3.64 million are exported.
- India is the second largest two-wheeler manufacturer, the largest motorcycle manufacturer and the fifth largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in the world.
- Passenger vehicle production is expected to grow to 9.4 million units annually by 2026
- Commercial vehicles production is expected to grow to 2.0 million units annually by 2026
- Two wheelers production is expected to grow to 50.6 million units annually by 2026
- Three wheelers production is expected to increase to 0.95 million units by 2026
Production of passenger vehicles, commercial vehicles, three wheelers and two wheelers grew at 5.41 per cent in FY17 to 25,316,044 vehicles from 24,016,599 vehicles in FY16.The sales of passenger vehicles, commercial vehicles and two wheelers grew by 9.23 per cent, 4.16 per cent and 6.89 per cent respectively, during the period April-March 2017.
India’s electric vehicle (EV) sales increased 37.5 per cent to 22,000 units during FY 2015-16 and are poised to rise further on the back of cheaper energy storage costs and the Government of India’s vision to see six million electric and hybrid vehicles in India by 2020.
REASONS TO INVEST
- By 2026, India is expected to be the third largest automotive market by volume in the world.
- Tractor sales in the country are expected to grow at Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 8-9% in the next five years, enhancing India’s market potential for international brands. Two-wheeler production has grown from 8.5 million units annually to 15.9 million units in the last seven years. Significant opportunities exist in rural markets.
- The emergence of large automotive clusters in the country: Delhi-Gurgaon-Faridabad in the north, Mumbai-Pune-Nashik-Aurangabad in the west, Chennai- Bengaluru-Hosur in the south and Jamshedpur-Kolkata in the east.
- Global car majors have been ramping up investments in India to cater to growing domestic demand. These manufacturers plan to leverage India’s competitive advantage to set up export-oriented production hubs.
- An Research & Development (R&D) hub: strong support from the government in the setting up of National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP) centres. Private players such as Hyundai, Suzuki, GM are keen to set up an R&D base in India.
- Electric cars are likely to be a sizeable market segment in the coming decade.
In order to keep up with the growing demand, several auto makers have started investing heavily in various segments of the industry during the last few months. The industry has attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$ 17.40 billion during the period April 2000 to June 2017, according to data released by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
Some of the major investments and developments in the automobile sector in India are as follows:
- JSW Energy, a subsidiary of Jindal Group, has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Gujarat government to set up an electric vehicle-manufacturing company at a cost of Rs 4,000 crore (US$ 613 million) which will have the capacity to produce 2,00,000 electric vehicles every year.
- Tata Motors will invest Rs 4,000 crore (US$ 612 million) in the year 2017 and a major portion will go to passenger vehicles i.e. Rs 2,500 crores (US$ 375 million) and the remaining Rs 1,500 crore ($225 million) will be invested in the business over the next few years.
- Electric car maker Tesla Inc. is likely to introduce its products in India sometime in the summer of 2017.
- Kia Motors is expected to sign a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Government of Andhra Pradesh (AP) to set up a factory in Penukonda in Anantapur district and the company will invest around US$ 2 billion on this plant and it will have manufacturing capacity of the 3 lakhs car per annum.
- Several automobile manufacturers, from global majors such as Audi to Indian companies such as Maruti Suzuki and Mahindra & Mahindra, are exploring the possibilities of introducing driverless self-driven cars for India.
- BMW plans to manufacture a local version of below-500 CC motorcycle, the G310R, in TVS Motor’s Hosur plant in Tamil Nadu, for Indian markets.
- Hero MotoCorp Ltd seeks to enhance its participation in the Indian electric vehicle (EV) space by pursuing its internal EV Programme in addition to investing Rs 205 crore (US$ 30.75 million) to acquire around 26-30 per cent stake in Bengaluru-based technology start-up Ather Energy Pvt Ltd.
- Ford Motor Co. plans to invest Rs 1,300 crore (US$ 195 million) to build a global technology and business centre in Chennai, which will be designed as a hub for product development, mobility solutions and business services for India and other markets.
- A growing working population and an expanding middle-class are expected to remain key demand drivers. GDP per capita has grown from USD 1,432.25 in 2010 to USD 1,500.76 in 2012, and is expected to reach USD 1,869.34 by 2018.
- India has the world’s 12th largest number of high-net-worth individuals, with a growth of 20.8%, the highest among the top 12 countries.
- Increasing disposable incomes in the rural agri-sector.
- The presence of a large pool of skilled and semi-skilled workers and a strong educational system.
- Favourable government policies like lower excise duties, automotive mission plans, the constitution of NEMMP (National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020), FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid land Electric Vehicle)
- 100% Foreign Direct investment (FDI) is allowed under the automatic route in the auto sector, subject to all the applicable regulations and laws.
The Government of India encourages foreign investment in the automobile sector and allows 100 per cent FDI under the automatic route.
Some of the major initiatives taken by the Government of India are
- Government is planning to introduce biofuel vehicles for road and water transportation. India needs to cut fossil fuel imports and look for alternative and cheaper fuels like methanol.
- Government of India extended support to the industry by increasing custom duty on CBUs of commercial vehicles from 10 per cent to 40 per cent and reducing duty on chassis for ambulance manufacturing from 24 per cent to 12.5 per cent.
- The Government of India plans to introduce a new Green Urban Transport Scheme with a central assistance of about Rs 25,000 crore (US$ 3.75 billion), aimed at boosting the growth of urban transport along low carbon path for substantial reduction in pollution, and providing a framework for funding urban mobility projects at National, State and City level with minimum recourse to budgetary support by encouraging innovative financing of projects.
- Government of India aims to make automobiles manufacturing the main driver of ‘Make in India’ initiative, as it expects passenger vehicles market to triple to 9.4 million units by 2026, as highlighted in the Auto Mission Plan (AMP) 2016-26.
- The government has formulated a Scheme for Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in India, under the National Electric Mobility Mission 2020 to encourage the progressive induction of reliable, affordable and efficient electric and hybrid vehicles in the country.
The automobile industry is supported by various factors such as availability of skilled labour at low cost, robust R&D centres and low cost steel production. The industry also provides great opportunities for investment and direct and indirect employment to skilled and unskilled labour.
The Indian automotive aftermarket is estimated to grow at around 10-15 per cent to reach US$ 16.5 billion by 2021 from around US$ 7 billion in 2016. It has the potential to generate up to US$ 300 billion in annual revenue by 2026, create 65 million additional jobs and contribute over 12 per cent to India’s Gross Domestic Product.
According to Mr Guillaume Sicard, president, Nissan India Operations, the income tax rate cut from 10 per cent to 5 per cent for individual tax payers earning under Rs 5 lakh (US$ 7,472) per annum will create a positive sentiment among likely first time buyers for entry level and small cars.
- Automatic approval for foreign equity investment up to 100% with no minimum investment criteria.
- Manufacturing and imports in this sector are exempt from licensing and approvals.
- The encouragement of R&D by offering rebates on R&D expenditure.
Automotive Mission Plan 2016-26:
Salient points of AMP-2026 are
- The Indian Automotive industry to be a top job creator – 65 million additional jobs
- The Indian Automotive industry to be one of the prime movers of Manufacturing sector and “Make in India” initiative
- The Indian Automotive industry aims to increase exports of vehicles by 5 times and components by 7.5 times
- Specific interventions are envisaged to sustain and improve manufacturing competitiveness and to address challenges of environment and safety
National Automotive Testing And R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP):
- The project has been set up at a total cost of USD 585 million to enable the industry to adopt and implement global performance standards.
- Focus on providing low-cost manufacturing and product development solutions.
The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP):
- The objective of this body is to encourage reliable, affordable and efficient xEVs (hybrid and electric vehicles) that meet consumer performance and price expectations through government-industry collaboration
- Promotion and development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities, required infrastructure, consumer awareness and technology are additional objectives of NEMMP 2020.
- India to emerge as a leader in the two-wheeler and four-wheeler xEV market in the world by 2020, with total xEV sales of 6-7 million units thus enabling the Indian automotive industry to achieve global xEV manufacturing leadership and contributing towards national fuel security.
- Target of putting 6 million electric & hybrid vehicles per year on the road by 2020 under NEMMP 2020.
- A pilot scheme for the initial period of two years in the name of Faster Adoption & Manufacturing Of Hybrid And Electric Vehicles, implemented from 1stApril 2015 for the initial period of two years.
It will cover all vehicle segments i.e. two-,three- and four-wheelers, cars, LCVs, buses etc. and all forms of hybrid (Mild/Strong/Plug-in) and pure electric vehicles.
It also seeks to provide demand incentives to electric and hybrid vehicles from two-wheeler to buses.
Pilot Electric Vehicle Projects:
- The Department of Heavy Industry(DHI) is launching pilot projects on electric vehicles in various metros and cities all across the country under the NEMMP 2020 with a dual purpose – demonstrating and disseminating the benefits of adopting cleaner, greener modes of transportation as also to explore the viable operational modalities.
- The DHI will provide viability gap funding through subvention to support the extra cost of acquisition and operation of these vehicles by state governments or designated bodies.
- In the first phase, a pilot project to provide last mile connectivity to the through electric passenger vehicles will be promoted.
- All the other states have been brought on board and different states have already appointed nodal officers to co-ordinate with DHI and vehicle manufacturers for the implementation of those pilot projects.
- The uptake of electric vehicles will depend in large part on the adequate deployment of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) needed to recharge electric vehicles.
Industry/private sponsored research programs:
- A weighted tax deduction is given under section 35 (2M) of the Income Tax Act. A weighted deduction of 150 % is granted to assesses for any sums paid to a national laboratory, university or institute of technology, or specified persons with a specific direction, provided that the said sum is used for scientific research within a program approved by the prescribed authority.
- Companies engaged in the manufacture of an in-house R&D centre:
- A weighted tax deduction of 150% under section 35 (2AB) of the Income Tax Act for both capital and revenue expenditure incurred on scientific research and development (Expenditure on land and buildings are not eligible for deduction).
- Concessional excise duty of 6% has been extended without any sunset clause Union Budget 2015-16 for manufacturers of batteries supplying to producers of electrically operated vehicles.
- Exemption from Basic Custom Duty (BCD) on lithium ion automotive batteries for the manufacture of lithium ion battery packs for supply to manufacturers of hybrid and electric vehicles.
- Apart from the above, each state in India offers additional incentives for industrial projects. Incentives are in areas like rebates in land cost, relaxation in stamp duty exemption on sale or lease of land, power tariff incentives, a concessional rate of interest on loans, investment subsidies/tax incentives, backward areas subsidies, special incentive packages for mega projects.
- Support to major markets has been given to the auto components and automobiles sectors under the new “Merchandise Exports from India Scheme” (MEIS).
- Incentives for units in SEZ/NIMZ as specified in respective Acts or the setting up of projects in special areas like the North-east, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand
- Passenger vehicles: passenger cars, utility vehicles, multi-purpose vehicles.
- Two-wheelers: mopeds, scooters, and motorcycles
- Three-wheelers: passenger carriers, goods carriers.
- Commercial vehicles: light commercial vehicles, medium and heavy commercial vehicles.
- Huge demands for low-cost electric vehicles that are suited for safe short-distance urban commutes (averaging 50-100 km/trip) that are rugged enough to perform reliably through India’s summers and monsoon. It is estimated that total electric vehicles sales would amount to 6-7 million units by 2020.
- Suzuki (Japan)
- Nissan (Japan)
- Piaggio (Italy)
- Volkswagen (Germany)
- Renault (France)
- Hyundai (South Korea)
- General Motors (USA)
- BMW (Germany)
- Ford (USA)
- Toyota (Japan)
- Mercedes (Germany)
- Daimler (Germany)
- FIAT (Italy)
- Honda (Japan)
- Department of Heavy Industries, Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises
- Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers
Exchange Rate Used: INR 1 = US$ 0.015 as of October 6, 2017
References: Media Reports, Press Releases, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA), Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), Union Budget 2015-16, Union Budget 2017-18
# – As per the Automotive Mission Plan 2016-26 prepared jointly by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) and government